I chose to research the use of videos as supplementary material in education to support my internship project of creating videos to support student homework completion. When I started my research, I struggled with finding articles on this subject because there hasn’t been much research done on this topic. I was able to find articles on similar topics that applied to what I wanted my peers to understand about using this technology to assist their students.
Some reoccurring themes that I noticed when I was researching using videos to support learning when applied to completing homework were that short videos are better than longer ones due to the attention span of the audience. Student need to be able to use the technology proficiently if they are to be successful in using it and they also need to be aware that the videos are available. Students who intend to continue to college should have experience using technology such as this as it is being used more and more in that venue. Also, this technology will not be helpful to all students since learning styles vary among them.
A new idea that occurred to me as I was researching this topic is that it is possible to allow students to create their own “study” video to use with homework. This would be really good since it allows the students to take ownership of using it since they created it. If students were to be challenged by the teacher that “the best video” will be displayed for the class to use for homework, this would also give the teacher another way to assess student understanding.
Carvalho, A. A. A., Cruz, S., & Moura, A. (2008). Pedagogical Potentialities of Podcasts in Learning: reactions from K-12 to university students in Portugal. International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP).
Though this research article focused on audio podcasts rather than video, there was information in this that is useful to keep in mind when considering method of delivery for the mini-lessons I want to instruction my peers in making. One thing that keeps coming to mind is that not all student like podcasts (in this case audio) which brings up the question of did the students prefer to read the material or because of inability to focus on the audio material. My inclination is towards learning preference, though there is the question of comfort level with the technology. It is important to remember that in for the blended classroom, especially, podcasts are not intended to replace reading or participation in the classroom.
The main focus of this article was to see how students use videos in instruction and how the subjects of the study felt about the recorded lecture videos used in this study. The study identified 3 categories of videos: demonstrative, narrative, and recorded lectures. The study found that how effective the videos are depend a lot on how the student value the material within the video and the learning style of the viewer. This article is helpful as it offers categories of videos; which allow me to explain what types of videos might be most useful for each subject area.
The main focus of this research paper was to look at whether using podcasts (I believe this can also apply to online videos) is truly beneficial to students. The research studied whether students would use recorded lectures to learn material shared in class. The research found that many students liked having the recorded lectures to use for the purposes of reviewing material for tests and knowledge sake.
The authors of this paper focus on what is emerging in the online environment in the way of streaming video (and audio) and how they are used for education. They also outline the benefits and drawbacks of using streaming video in the blended classroom. I particularly like the idea that information is “pulled” to the learner when they are ready for it and not pushed to them from the instructor. Much of this information is such that I can share with my colleagues.
The use of audio podcasts as discussed in this research article can be applied, in part, to video podcasts as well. The article states barriers to audio podcasts that can be applied to video, namely unfamiliarity with the technology, technical problems accessing the casts, and not seeing the relevance for the learning for the student. Problems for teachers are unfamiliarity with the technology, cannot see the relevance of podcasts for their subject area, and lack of time to create videos. Some of these problems I foresaw when I undertook this project specifically lack of relevance and lack of understanding of the technology. I’m planning on focusing on these problems.
This particular article was more of a study in the theoretical use of videos in the classroom. The article starts by stating that since, in 2005, the technology was still in its infancy, research was limited. It goes on to discuss a conceptual framework used to evaluate the benefits of video in instruction called the Three I’s Framework which considers Image, Interactivity, and Integration within the context of instruction. The article continues the discussion with identifying video instruction with constructivist theory and then exploring 6 characteristics of a good video: Active, Constructive and Individual, Collaborative and Conversation, Contextual, Guided, and Emotionally Involving and Motivating. The article concludes by saying you do not have to include all characteristics of a good video in a particular lesson in order to have a meaningful and constructive video.
Though this research article focuses on student generated videos, there is still usable information that includes allowing students to create videos that can be used by the current class and possibly future classes to support learning in the classroom. The article states that allowing students to create videos in the classroom allows them to present information in a unique way. Creating videos also allows students to develop relevant skills in technical literacy. The conclusion is that videos allow for authentic learning for the students. I can use this article to suggest another way teachers can use videos in the classroom. This can be done by allowing groups of students to create videos of the day’s learning that can be uploaded to the LMS so that students can then use them to study and reference later. These videos could possibly hold more relevance to the students than teacher created ones.
The this research article is of an older nature there was information in here that I felt were quite useful and some that just support what is already known such as the fact that it helps students whether they are in a traditional classroom or an online environment. At the time of this article, online video material was primarily being sent via mail in the form of a CD-ROM or video tape. The article sited that as this technology became easier to get and use, streaming videos would be more prevalent and easier to access. The article also gave discussion to the bandwidth and system requirements of the technology. The author also discussed how students learn better by doing and that videos allow for students to visually see how something is done.
The author of this research paper stated that the 3 ways to use videos (podcasts) in the classroom is to a) duplicate instruction done in the classroom as a backup for reviewing for assessments; b) to share additional information with the student that is supplemental in nature; and c) to introduce students to new information or prepare the learner for learning that will be covered in the next class period. Though this article was intended for an older group of students (college level) another piece of information can be pulled from this article: students need to start learning to use this technology at earlier ages so that they are prepared when and if they go on to higher education (whether it’s training, tech school, or college).
As I read this research article, I found that I had an appreciation for the terminology shared in within it. We, as teachers, often refer to the strategies we use in the classroom as our teaching toolbox. This article refers to the use of technology and the Internet as our electronic delivery toolkit. I love this term and I will introduce it to my peers to use when I do my PD. As I continued to read, the author referred to the use of Web 2.0 tools in the classroom for collaboration, personalization, and productivity as Pedagogy 2,0. When creating videos to use in the classroom, we as teachers need to build with the concepts of good teaching in mind. Al in all, this article held a lot of information that can be used in the information sheet for my peers.
This research article took me longer to read because I had to read and digest and read again to get all I could out of it. The author starts by discussing the fact that there was, at the time, little evidence-based educational literature to support the use of streaming video in the classroom. She does site, once again, the importance of using short segments to maximize what viewers get from view time. The article defines exactly what streaming video is, discussing the difference between multi-casting and uni-casting videos. She goes on to talk about the different ways that streaming video can be accessed from the Internet without going to the hosting site, including how I’m doing it by embedding it on the LMS, and then the students access it from their PC. She mentions that the sky is the limit as there are innovations “around the corner”. I know for myself, I can view the videos I create on my smart phone.
Simo, P., Fernandez, V., Algaba, I., Salan, N., Enache, M., Albareda-Sambola, M., … & Rajadell, M. (2010). Video stream and teaching channels: quantitative analysis of the use of low-cost educational videos on the web. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 2937-2941.
The authors of this article explore the ways to create low cost streaming videos and how they are used. It is stated that streaming videos can be categorized into 3 major categories: demonstration videos, narrative videos, and lecture videos. Of the 3 categories, the author cites that the demonstration video are a really good tool to sue in order to allow and improve learning. This idea supports the way I’m hoping the videos will be used as a result of my professional development program.
The information shared in this article is similar in many ways to other articles cited in this paper, such as videos should be shown in short segments and that streaming video can be played directly from the internet without the need to download it. The author is very careful to break down streaming into simple terms that even the most technologically challenged reader would understand. In this paper the information I found most of note is that the audience of the videos should not be passively watching the videos but they should be expected to interact in some way to the video such as answering questions though out or identifying what they should get out of it. Another useful point made in this article is the discussion of how steaming could work in the classroom and how to make streaming happen in the classroom.
This article discusses the benefits of allowing students to create videos for learning. In the article the author states that creating videos involves “critical thinking, general observation, analysis, and perspective-making skills.” Student gains an appreciation for literature and other ways of expressing themselves. They also give positively in a learning community and society and have the ability to recognize the importance of learning. Once a teacher realizes how easy it is to create videos, they will be willing to allow students to create videos as well.
The author of the article shares how video streaming is helpful in learning. She discusses its uses in distance learning, home schooling, and public education. She goes further to discuss how it can be used by both the teachers and the students and sites examples of uses for students. Though I haven’t really considered this aspect of video streaming, she also shares why streaming is a better choice that using DVD’s or Video Tapes.
In this article, the authors focus on using video and audio ‘casts to support literacy and comprehension. The article suggests that teachers create videos or audio cast read alouds for students that have comprehension issues. This supports the students learning and scaffolds the learning as the students gain these very important skills. This article is a good one to refer the Reading Coaches and ELA teachers to for further information.
This article was really exciting for me because it looks at an evolution of video used to support instruction. The teachers in this article started out looking for a way to support students who had to leave early from school due to sporting events. They were able to flip the classroom in order to energize learning in the classroom. At this time I do not see ADMS moving to the flipped classroom but I can see the benefit of using mini-lessons to support homework time through reading this article. One of the really important notes that I read in this article is that the videos need to be short (less than 10 minutes, closer to 5).
This article explores the actual usage of videos in the classroom and the attention span of students based on grade (K-7 versus 8-up). Students in grades up to 7th can usually handle videos between 5 and 7 minutes but then must “digest” the information and rest. Older students can handle longer videos around 12 to 15 minutes in length. The article cautions against using whole videos rather than segmented videos since whole videos tend to cover more information than what the teacher really needs to cover. This information is good for teachers who want to simply share videos from United Streaming (Discovery Ed) rather than creating a new video.
This journal article looks at the use of video to support learning in the classroom. In a traditional classroom, we use the term “classroom toolbox” to classify the strategies and methods we use to teach our students. Pedagogy 2.0 is coined in this article to define the use of Web 2.0 tools that can be used in the classroom for collaboration, personalization, and productivity. One important point brought up in this article the Net Generation have been connected to the technology throughout their developmental growth and expect that their learning will be interactive as well. It is also important that videos are built on good practices in active learning.
This article was based on students creating videos but there was some good advice. The first thing that some creating a video needs to remember is that just like a lesson, there should be a clear beginning, middle, and conclusion. The article when on to discuss that, when possible, a video producer should edit their videos. Again, like in other articles, time was brought up as an important factor. Finally, the title of the video should be meaningful and eye-catching.